Nose is a very important part of our body. Nose is responsible for breathing & smelling. A small problem in the nose can affect the whole of our body. Studies have shown that the nose of a male is larger than that of a female. Rhinology refers to nose.
1. Anterior Skull Base Lesions: This condition mainly affect the skull base areas which are closely related to the eye,and the sinuses.
a. Skull Base Paranasal Sinus Cancer: This cancer develops in the tissues of the hollow bone spaces around the nose.
b. Meningioma: Originated from the meninges, meningioma is a primary brain tumour constituting 30% of the brain tumours.
c. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Malignant tumours that are developed in the nose which starts in the olfactory nerves which acts as a mediator to transfer impulse of smell from the nose to the brain.
2. Chronic sinusitis: It is the inflammation caused in one or more sinuses. The cheekbones and forehead have small air filled spaces called sinuses, in which mucus is produced. Sinusitis is referred to inflammation of the sinus mucosa.
3. Epistaxis: Seen in all age groups, it is not a disease and can be treated easily . It is the bleeding from the interior of the nose. Normally, first the bleeding is brought under control.Still the cause has to be found and treated. Fracture of the nasal bone is one of the causes.
4. Foreign body: . In children, when the nasal discharge has a foul smell or it is blood stained, it could be a foreign body present in the nose undetected.
5. Fungal infections: Rhinoporiodiosis is an infection caused by the pathogen rhinosporidium seeberi. Mainly affecting the nose and other parts including the lips, skin ,vagina, it is acquired due to contaminated water of the ponds which are used by animals.
6. Fungal sinusitis: When the fungus is found within the sinuses, it is called fungal sinusitis.It often follows chronic allergic rhinitis.
7. Nasal obstruction: This can be due to various reasons, ranging from long standing allergic rhinitis and structural abnormalities in the nose to tumours.
8. Nasal polyps:The outgrowth from the inflamed mucus membranes is called nasal polyps,extending to the nostrils opening and to the throat area,which can even block the nasal passages.
9. Perforation of Nasal Septum: It is the condition in which there is a hole or defect in the nasal septum, which divides both the nasal cavities.
10. Rhinolith: It is a long standing foreign body.
11. Tumors of the nose: Abnormal growths in the nose or paranasal sinuses are called tumours.